Erected by Pope Pius IX to commemorate the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception (1854), is surmounted by a bronze statue of Our Lady and stands in the Piazza di Spagna, the center of the English quarter in Rome, Italy, opposite the palace of the Spanish ambassador.
- “column of Immaculate Conception”. . Saints.SQPN.com. 23 March 2010. Web. 7 December 2013. <http://saints.sqpn.com/column-of-immaculate-conception/>