Historian and theologian. Shortly after his ordination in 1822 he became professor of canon law and church history at the University of Munich. One of the foremost scholars of his day, he was admired by all, but from ranking as a vigorous defender of Catholic interests he came by degrees to believe in a nationalized form of Catholicism. In 1871 he refused to accept the dogma of papal infallibility and was thereupon excommunicated. The Old Catholics regarded him as a member, but Dollinger never submitted to their schismatic bishop. He died outside the communion of the Church. His principal works are histories of the doctrine of the Holy Eucharist, of the Reformation, and of Catholic theology.