Doctrine held by a section of the Netherlands Calvinists in the 17th century, so called from the leader of the sect, Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609), professor at Leyden. His teachings are embodied in the five propositions of the Remonstrants, as his followers were also called. He opposed Calvin's doctrines of predestination, election, the teaching that Christ died for the elect only, and that grace benefits only the elect. The Calvinist Synod of Dort condemned the Remonstrant heresy, but extreme Calvinism never recovered from Arminius's defection.

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