(Greek: botane, plant)
The branch of biology which systematically investigates every aspect of plants.
Its principal divisions include:
Distinguished in the science are the following:
- cytology, which treats of the cell
- ecology, which is concerned with the influence of environment
- economic botany
- morphology, the science of the external forms of plants
- paleobotany, which deals with fossil plants
- pythopathology, which treats of diseases of plants
- taxonomy, which has plant classification as its subject matter
OTHER CHRISTIAN BOTANISTS
- Francesco Castracane degli Antelminelli
- (1817-1899) A priest was one of the pioneers in combining microscopy and photography, renowned for his diatomic researches, and the discoverer of 3 new genera, 225 new species, and 30 varieties.
- Patrick Barry
- (1816-1890) Horticulturist, established one of the largest nurseries in the United States at Rochester in conjunction with George Ellwanger, and wrote extensively on horticulture.
- Andrea Cesalpino
- (1519-1603) Inaugurated the systematization of plant classification and laid the basis of plant physiology and morphology; the plant species Cresalpinia is named in his honor.
- Stephen Ladistaus Endlicher
- (1804-1849) Founded a new botanical system and classification, established the first Austrian periodical devoted to the natural sciences, and was the author of standard botanical works.
- Bernard de Jussieu
- (1699-1777) A pioneer in the natural classification of plants and author of several standard botanical treatises; a genus of tree belonging to the Onogracem family was named Jussienia by Linnmus in his honor.
- Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
- (1748-1836) Nephew of Bernard de Jussieu, made important expositions and practical applications of the above-mentioned natural classification.
- Adrien Henri de Jussieu
- (1797-1853) Son of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, one time president of the French Academy of Sciences, was the author of a famous elementary text-book on botany and did important investigation on the plant family Malpighiacere.
- Gregor Johann Mendel
- (1822-1884) Renowned for his researches on hybridization, and author of the law of heredity designated by his name.
- Filippo Parlatore
- (1816-1877) Author of the valuable "Flora Italiania" and of several treatises on organography, paleontology, and taxonomy, founded the "Giornale botanico Italiano" and was instrumental in founding the general herbarium at Florence.
- Charles Plumier
- (1646-1704) Renowned botanical explorer, discovered several new species of, and wrote the first treatise on, American ferns, and made distinguished researches on the plants of Antilles and Central America.
- Leon Abel Provancher
- (1820-1892) The "Father of Natural History in Canada," did famous research on the flora and fauna of Canada.
- Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
- (1656-1708) Drew up an artificial system of plant classification and made a valuable exposition of the distinction between genus and species.
- Louis Rene Tulasne
- (1815-1885) Noted for his contributions to mycology, the science of fungi, particularly for his researches on parasite fungi; certain genera of fungi have been named in his honor.
- Franz Paula von Schrank, S.J.
- (1747-1835) Directed the Munich Botanical Garden and made valuable descriptions and classification of flora.
- Karl Adolf Agardh
- (1785-1859) Inaugurated the study of seaweeds.
- John Bartram
- (1699-1777) Founded the first botanical garden in America, was ranked by Linnmus as the greatest natural botanist in the world, and was instrumental in introducing several American plants into Europe.
- George Bentham
- (1800-1884) Master in systematic botany of the 19th century, did important work on plants native to the Pyrenees and was the author of the first-comprehensive work on the flora of China.
- Alexander Braun
- (1805-1877) Made several contributions to the science of morphology, and directed the famous Berlin Botanical Garden.
- Augustin Pyrame de Candolle
- (1778-1841) The author of the first natural system of botanical classification.
- Asa Gray
- (1810-1888) Founded the Harvard herbarium and botanical library, was a pioneer in classifying plants according to affinity, author of numerous standard botanical works, and particularly renowned for his researches on plant distribution and on North .American flora.
- Heinrich Friedrich Link
- (1767-1851) Directed the botanical gardens of Berlin and wrote several famous botanical works.
- Karl van Linné
- (1707-1778) More commonly known as Linnaeus, author of the Linnean system of plant classification according to sex, is considered the founder of modern systematic botany, and inaugurated binary terminology.
- Karl Friedrich von Martius
- (1794-1868) Did noted work on Brazilian flora, discovered new palms, and wrote a standard work on them.
- Ferdinand Von Müller
- (1825-1896) The foremost authority on Australian flora, made distinguished researches on plant acclimatization.
- Thomas Nuttall
- (1786-1859) One time curator of the Harvard Botanical Gardens, discovered several new genera and new species of American flora.
- John Ray
- (1628-1705) Known as the "Father of Natural History in England," was renowned for his contributions to taxonomy, and clarified and restricted the use of the term species.
- William Turner
- (1510-1568) The founder of scientific botany in England.
- Kneller, translated by Kettle, , Saint Louis, 1911
New Catholic Dictionary