(Greek: botane, plant) The branch of biology which systematically investigates every aspect of plants. Its principal divisions include: Distinguished in the science are the following:

Francesco Castracane degli Antelminelli
(1817-1899) A priest was one of the pioneers in combining microscopy and photography, renowned for his diatomic researches, and the discoverer of 3 new genera, 225 new species, and 30 varieties.
Patrick Barry
(1816-1890) Horticulturist, established one of the largest nurseries in the United States at Rochester in conjunction with George Ellwanger, and wrote extensively on horticulture.
Andrea Cesalpino
(1519-1603) Inaugurated the systematization of plant classification and laid the basis of plant physiology and morphology; the plant species Cresalpinia is named in his honor.
Stephen Ladistaus Endlicher
(1804-1849) Founded a new botanical system and classification, established the first Austrian periodical devoted to the natural sciences, and was the author of standard botanical works.
Bernard de Jussieu
(1699-1777) A pioneer in the natural classification of plants and author of several standard botanical treatises; a genus of tree belonging to the Onogracem family was named Jussienia by Linnmus in his honor.
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
(1748-1836) Nephew of Bernard de Jussieu, made important expositions and practical applications of the above-mentioned natural classification.
Adrien Henri de Jussieu
(1797-1853) Son of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, one time president of the French Academy of Sciences, was the author of a famous elementary text-book on botany and did important investigation on the plant family Malpighiacere.
Gregor Johann Mendel
(1822-1884) Renowned for his researches on hybridization, and author of the law of heredity designated by his name.
Filippo Parlatore
(1816-1877) Author of the valuable "Flora Italiania" and of several treatises on organography, paleontology, and taxonomy, founded the "Giornale botanico Italiano" and was instrumental in founding the general herbarium at Florence.
Charles Plumier
(1646-1704) Renowned botanical explorer, discovered several new species of, and wrote the first treatise on, American ferns, and made distinguished researches on the plants of Antilles and Central America.
Leon Abel Provancher
(1820-1892) The "Father of Natural History in Canada," did famous research on the flora and fauna of Canada.
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
(1656-1708) Drew up an artificial system of plant classification and made a valuable exposition of the distinction between genus and species.
Louis Rene Tulasne
(1815-1885) Noted for his contributions to mycology, the science of fungi, particularly for his researches on parasite fungi; certain genera of fungi have been named in his honor.
Franz Paula von Schrank, S.J.
(1747-1835) Directed the Munich Botanical Garden and made valuable descriptions and classification of flora.
Karl Adolf Agardh
(1785-1859) Inaugurated the study of seaweeds.
John Bartram
(1699-1777) Founded the first botanical garden in America, was ranked by Linnmus as the greatest natural botanist in the world, and was instrumental in introducing several American plants into Europe.
George Bentham
(1800-1884) Master in systematic botany of the 19th century, did important work on plants native to the Pyrenees and was the author of the first-comprehensive work on the flora of China.
Alexander Braun
(1805-1877) Made several contributions to the science of morphology, and directed the famous Berlin Botanical Garden.
Augustin Pyrame de Candolle
(1778-1841) The author of the first natural system of botanical classification.
Asa Gray
(1810-1888) Founded the Harvard herbarium and botanical library, was a pioneer in classifying plants according to affinity, author of numerous standard botanical works, and particularly renowned for his researches on plant distribution and on North .American flora.
Heinrich Friedrich Link
(1767-1851) Directed the botanical gardens of Berlin and wrote several famous botanical works.
Karl van Linné
(1707-1778) More commonly known as Linnaeus, author of the Linnean system of plant classification according to sex, is considered the founder of modern systematic botany, and inaugurated binary terminology.
Karl Friedrich von Martius
(1794-1868) Did noted work on Brazilian flora, discovered new palms, and wrote a standard work on them.
Ferdinand Von Müller
(1825-1896) The foremost authority on Australian flora, made distinguished researches on plant acclimatization.
Thomas Nuttall
(1786-1859) One time curator of the Harvard Botanical Gardens, discovered several new genera and new species of American flora.
John Ray
(1628-1705) Known as the "Father of Natural History in England," was renowned for his contributions to taxonomy, and clarified and restricted the use of the term species.
William Turner
(1510-1568) The founder of scientific botany in England. - Kneller, translated by Kettle, Christianity and the Leaders of Modern Science, Saint Louis, 1911
New Catholic Dictionary

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