Ecclesiastic and political martyr, born Lithuania, Russia; died Moscow.
Vicar of Saint Catherine's church in Saint Petersburg (Leningrad), he headed every religious and philanthropic undertaking of the Catholic Poles.
In opposition to socialistic anti-religious teachings, he founded the Christian Democratic movement.
During the World War, he was president of the Polish Relief Commission.
In 1918 he was created monsignor, and made dean of Mohileff with jurisdiction over the churches of northern Russia.
He was seized by the Bolshevists, 1923.
At a farcical trial in Moscow, he was charged with counter-revolutionary activities for having resisted Soviet decrees which forbade religious instruction, ordered the signing over of the churches to the government, and the surrender of sacred vessels.
He was condemned to death, and in spite of protests sent by practically every civilized nation he was executed.
New Catholic Dictionary