Clement XIV, Pope

[coat of arms of Pope Clement XIV] (Lorenzo, or Giovanni, Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli) (1769-1774) Born Sant' Arcangelo, Italy, 1705; died Rome, Italy. Educated by the Jesuits, he became a Franciscan, held many ecclesiastical offices, and was appointed cardinal in 1759. At this election the conclave was the victim of pressure exerted by France and Spain. He inherited the trying legacies of Clement XIII, and in support of his policy to keep peace with the Catholic princes and thus combat the irreligion which was rampant in Europe, he issued his Brief of suppression against the Jesuit Order, 1773. No other reason is given by the pope for the Brief than that it was necessary for the preservation of peace between the Church and the Christian princes. It was ignored in many places. His policy was unsuccessful, and temporal princes began to legislate in ecclesiastical matters. Clement founded the University of Münster in 1773.

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