Act or ceremony of crowning a monarch. The coronation ceremony of the emperors at Constantinople did not exist before the time of Constantine who first assumed the diadem, which became the symbol of sovereignty, and introduced the ceremony of adoration by prostration. The next change was the setting of the diadem on the sovereign's head by the Patriarch of Constantinople. The ecclesiastical element in the ceremonial rapidly developed. At first the emperor was not crowned in a church and the ritual centered in the conferring of the chlamys and crown. The rite of anointing was probably not introduced in the East until the 12th century. In the West toward the close of the 7th century the Visigothic kings were crowned by the Bishop of Toledo. In England the Egbertine Order is the earliest form of investiture and seems to show a compromise between Celtic and Roman elements. The "Liber Regalis," introduced at the coronation of Edward II, 1307, forms the substance of the ritual used at the present day. English has been substituted for Latin and all Roman expressions have been suppressed. The oath to maintain the Protestant Reformed Religion and the presentation of the Bible were introduced in the time of William III. The English coronation order has much in common with that formerly used for the cotonation of the Emperor, and King of the Romans. The French king had the privilege of communicating under both species, and used the oil from the Sainte Ampoule. No religious ceremony is now in use in Spain when the king ascends the throne. A splendid ceremonial was used for the crowning of the Russian emperor.

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