Gallican Articles

The famous "Four Articles" drawn up by the Assembly of the French Clergy, convened by order of Louis XIV in 1682. On 19 March it voted the Articles, a summary of which follows: kings and sovereigus are not by God's commands subject to any ecclesiastical dominion in things temporal; the decrees of the Council of Constance (4th and 5th sessions) remain unchanged and immQvable, and therefore the pope is at all times inferior to the council; the exercise of the pontifical authority must be regulated by the canons and the pope is bound to respect the customs and maxims of the Church of France; the pope's judgment, even in matters of faith, is not irreformable, unless confirmed by the consent of the universal Church. Outside of France the Articles were violently attacked and even in France they met with strong opposition. Alexander VIII proclaimed null and void all the declarations of the Assembly concerning papal authority; on the other hand, Louis XIV forbade the bishops nominated by him to seek their Bulls in Rome. The conflict lasted until 1693 when the king practically revoked the offensive Articles, which, however, remained the living symbol of Gallicanism until the 19th century.

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