(Greek: ge, earth; logia, science)
The science which treats of every feature of the earth except that pertaining to its relation to other planets.
In its wider sense it comprehends: hydrology, the study of the hydrosphere, i.e., the ocean, lakes, rivers, etc.; lithology, the science of the lithosphere or crust of the earth; meteorology which is concerned with the atmosphere and particularly meteors; paleontology, the science of fossils; petrology, the science of rocks; seismology, the study of earth disturbances; and vulcanology, which is concerned with the pyrosphere.
Geology proper or lithology may be divided into structural geology, which as the name implies deals with the structure and composition of the earth's crust; dynamical geology which treats of the forces operating on and in the earth, and historical geology.
Renowned in this science are:
New Catholic Dictionary