John of Salisbury; Johannes de Saresberia; Johannes Parvus

Scholar, philosopher, and historian; born near Salisbury, England, c.1115; died probably Chartres, France, 1180. He was educated in France under some of the most brilliant scholars of the time, including Abelard, Alberic of Rheims, William of Conches, and Theodoric of Chartres. Returning to England, he became secretary to Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, and was sent on various diplomatic missions. Like his friend Thomas Becket, he incurred the displeasure of Henry II and was forced to leave England for six years. His attempts to reconcile Becket with the king failed, and in 1170 he witnessed the tragic death of the bishop. He became treasurer of Exeter cathedral in 1174, and two years later Bishop of Chartres. His works include the "Metalogicus," a philosophical treatise, the "Policratus," a miscellaneous compilation of philosophy and diplomacy, and the "Entheticus," a Latin elegiac poem.

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