Name given to the revival of medieval Scholasticism within the last couple centuries.
It is a philosophical tendency born among Catholic thinkers which aims at bringing into general use the methods and teachings of the great Schoolmen.
Its protagonists maintain that it does not mean a return to the unchanged systems of the medieval Scholastics, but an attempt to bring the acquisitions of modern science into harmony with their principles and fundamental doctrines, and the abandonment of their erroneous notions, especially those concerning the physical universe.
The Neo-Scholastic movement was begun in Italy by such men as Liberatore and San Severino, and in Germany by Kleutgen and Stoeckl even before the appearance, in 1879, of the celebrated encyclical of Leo XIII, "AEterni Patris" which solemnly approved the movement and gave it a powerful impetus.
Since then it has spread throughout the whole Catholic world.
New Catholic Dictionary