Philip II; Philip Augustus

King of France; born 1165; died Mantes, 1223. An able and energetic monarch, his reign was marked by a long conflict with Henry II and Richard Coeur de Lion of England, with whom, however, he took part in the Third Crusade. Their rivalry, during which Richard gained repeated victories, ended abruptly with his death before the Castle of Chalus ( 1199 ). Richard's brother John Lackland continued the fight but most of his vast estates in France were confiscated by Philip. To regain them he made an alliance with Otho of Germany, but they were decisively defeated at Bouvines (1214). In his dealings with the Holy See and with the clergy, Philip showed himself arrogant and independent, demanding the same submission from his ecclesiastical as from his lay vassals, and even expecting military service from them. He never, however, pursued toward the Church a policy of trickery or pettiness but compelled clerics to pay to the treasury one tenth of their income. His divorce from Ingeborg of Denmark brought him into a long conflict with Pope Innocent III.

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