Philip II

King of Spain; born Valladolid, Spain, 1527; died at the Escorial, Madrid, 1598. Son of Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. Invested with the Duchy of Milan, 1540, Naples and Sicily, 1554, the Lordship of the Netherlands, 1555. He came to the throne of Spain, 1556, and in 1559 signed the Peace of Câteau-Cambrésis with France. Champion of Catholicism, and absolutist, his autocracy caused a revolt in the Netherlands, 1567, resulting in the loss of seven northern provinces to Spain. He put down an insurrection of the Moriscoes, 1567-1570; conquered the Turks at Lepanto, 1571; annexed Portugal to Spain, 1580; and in 1585 joined the Holy League and opposed the accession of Henry IV, whom he continued to oppose even after his conversion. Enmity with England having resulted from Elizabeth's aid to the Netherlands, her support of the Protestant cause, and piratical attacks against Spanish possessions, the Spanish Armada was launched against her, 1588. Philip married Maria of Portugal, 1543; Mary Tudor, 1554; Elizabeth of Valois, 1559; Anne, daughter of Maximilian II, 1570.

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