University of Pisa

In the 11th century jurisprudence and medicine were taught at Pisa, and in 1338, as Benedict XII had put Bologna under an interdict, some of the faculty and students of that university settled there. A studium is mentioned, 1340, and in 1343, Clement VI erected a studium generale, confirmed by Charles IV, 1355. It was closed, 1359, reopened by Urban VI, 1364, suppressed by the Florentines, 1406, and reopened again by Lorenzo de' Medici, 1473. It was restored by Cosimo de' Medici, 1543; aided by Pope Paul III with large concessions out of the Church revenues and monasteries, and became the cradle of modern science. United with the University of Siena, 1851, the faculties of philosophy and medicine remained at Pisa. It now has the ordinary faculties with schools of engineering, agriculture, veterinary medicine, and poormacy, and a normal high school. Among its noted scientists were Cesalpino, Galileo Galilei, Borelli, and Marcello Malpighi.

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