Jean Francois Paul Gondi, Cardinal de Retz

Archbishop of Paris. Born in 1614 at the Chateau of Montmirail, France; died in 1679 in Paris, France. Destined for the Church, he acquired a solid education, studying sacred and profane literature. His taste, however, inclined toward Republicanism and the role of conspirator. From 1638 to 1641 he took part in the plots of the Count de Soissons against Richelieu, but after the death of the former, devoted himself to an ecclesiastical career, and in 1644 was consecrated at Notre Dame, receiving the title of Archbishop of Corinth. His popularity in Paris and his activity in the movement of the so-called Fronde against Mazarin, brought down upon him the hostility of the latter. When made cardinal in 1651, he promised fidelity to the royal family, but his opposition to Mazarin ended only with the latter's death. He played an active part in the quarrels between King Louis XIV and Rome, and the conclaves which elected Pope Clement IX and Pope Clement X. A politician rather than a churchman, his career was characterized by a love of intrigue and adventure.

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