Siena, Italy

[coat of arms of Siena, Italy] City in Tuscany. The ancient city (Saena) was the center of a diocese in the 5th century. It was ruled in the 11th and 12th centuries by bishops who were also temporal lords of the surrounding country. A consular system was adopted in 1125, and from this time the history of the expanding republic is one of constantly changing government and continual strife. It was finally incorporated into Tuscany in 1557, and annexed to the kingdom of Italy in 1860. Gothic architecture produced in Siena its most excellent monuments, among which is the 13th-century cathedral containing numerous valuable paintings and sculptures. Siena was the home of the artists Duccio, Simone Martini (1285-1344), and the brothers Pisani; of the illustrious Gigli, and Cardinal Piccolomini; of many saints, including The city is the seat of an archdiocese, and does, of course, have patron saints.

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