(Greek: manly) Apostle (died 60), born Bethsaida, Galilee; died Patrre, Achaia. Son of Jona, brother of Peter (Matthew 10; John 1), and disciple of John the Baptist, he became a follower of Our Lord and was chosen as one of the twelve Apostles (Luke, 6). He is supposed to have preached in Cappadocia, Galatia, Bithynia, Scythia (Russia), Byzantium, Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, and Achaia, where he was crucified on an X-shaped or Saint Andrew’s cross by the Roman governor, AEgeas. On Saint Andrew’s eve in Germany it is customary for girls to supplicate Saint Andrew to reveal the identity of their future husband; on the day following the young people float cups in a tub, and if a boy’s and a girl’s cup drifting together are intercepted by a cup inscribed “priest” it indicates marriage. Patron of Russia and Scotland and of fishermen and old maids; invoked against gout and sore throat. Relics in cathedral of Amalfi, Italy. Emblem: Saint Andrew’s cross. Feast, Roman Calendar, 30 November, till 1918 a holy day of obligation in Scotland; the Divine Office for his feast is one of the most devotional in the Breviary.