Apostle, martyr, died 62 AD, son of Alpheus and Mary of Cleophas, who was probably the sister of the Blessed Virgin Mary; he was therefore called “brother of Our Lord”; known as James the Less (Mark 15) to distinguish him from James the Greater. He was called to the apostolate with his brother Jude in the second year of Christ’s ministry (Matthew 10; Mark 3; Luke 6; Acts 1). Our Lord appeared to James before the Ascension (1 Corinthians 15). He was appointed by the Apostles Bishop of Jerusalem, and was first beside Peter among the Apostles, assisted at the Council of Jerusalem, 51, and is the author of the Epistle of Saint James. He was stoned by the Jews and killed with a fuller’s club. Patron of fullers and hatters. Emblems: a square rule, halberd, club. Relics in the church of the Apostles, Rome. Feast, Roman Calendar, 1 May.
- “Saint James the Less”. . Saints.SQPN.com. 18 July 2013. Web. 27 January 2015. <>