Reigned from 19 September 1523 to 25 September 1534. Born on 26 May 1478 in Florence, Italy as Giulio de’ Medici; died on 25 September 1534 at Rome, Italy. He was a Knight of Rhodes and fulfilled many important offices, and was made cardinal in 1513. To protect the Papal States, he allied himself with France, Florence, and Venice against Charles V and the Colonna family. He was imprisoned and Rome was sacked by the German mercenaries, but after a peace with Charles V, he crowned the latter at Bologna, 1530. He refused to annul the marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, and excommunicated the former for his subsequent action. During his pontificate Cellini, Raphael, and Michelangelo secured papal patronage.