Born Giammaria Ciocchi del Monte. Reigned from 7 February 1550 to 23 March 1555. Born on 10 September 1487 at Rome, Italy; died there on 23 March 1555. He was Archbishop of Siponto, Bishop of Pavia, Prefect of Rome, cardinal-priest, Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina, and first president of the Council of Trent in 1545. As pope, he concluded a two-year truce with France; supported the rising Jesuit Order; sent Cardinal Pole to Queen Mary of England to aid in the Catholic restoration; reopened the Council of Trent; and despatched a cardinal to represent Catholic interests at the Religious Peace of Augsburg.