- Jacques Pantaléon
Son of a cobbler. Studied theology and civil law in Paris. Canon of Laon. Archdeacon of Liège, Belgium. Sent on several missions by Pope Innocent IV. Worked to restore clerical discipline, and bring peace between the Teutonic Knights and the commoners in Silesia in 1247. Archdeacon of Laon in 1249. Worked in 1251 for the choice of William of Holland as Holy Roman Emperor. Bishop of Verdun, France in 1253. Chosen Patriarch of Jerusalem by Pope Alexander IV in 1255. Pope in 1261.
Fearing a popular uprising against a French pope, he never went to Rome. He preached Crusade, but without effect. He created fourteen new cardinals, including the future popes, Clement IV, Martin IV, and Honorius IV; these appointments insured that the Sacred College firmly supported him, but gave it a French influence that would last over a century. Instituted the feast of Corpus Christi (the Body of Christ). While working to increase the civil power and authority of the Vatican, he became embroiled in the dispute over the rightful king of the Two Sicilies, but died before the matter was settled.