Bishop of Praeneste.
Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina.
Helped settle the endless civil disputes between the Vatican and the Roman people that had caused civil unrest for decades by sharing power and permitting elections.
Convinced Henry II of England and Philip Augustus to undertake the Third Crusade.
Introduced several minor reforms in ecclesiastical matters.
Freed the Scottish Church from the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan See of York.
Recognized Tancred as king of Sicily against the claims of Henry VI of Germany.