Educated by the Jesuits.
Archbishop of Cremona, Italy.
Papal nuncio to Savoy.
234th pope in 1621.
Unlike many of his brother popes of the era, Gregory was little involved in European politics.
Worked with the Holy Roman Emperor to slow the spread of Protestantism in Germany; helped finance Ferdinand II's move to reclaim Bohemia.
Supported the king of Poland against invading Turks.
Supported reforming efforts within the clergy and cloister.
Established the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda to regulate missionary work.
Founded the International college for Benedictines at Rome.
Issued the last papal ordinance against witchcraft in 1623.
Secured more tolerance for Catholics in England.
Supported Catholics in the Netherlands.
His Bull "" laid out the rules that governed papal elections for centuries.