Signed the Concordat of 1801 with Napoleon Bonaparte in order to re-establish the Church in post-Revolutionary France.
It permitted the civil government to nominate bishops and archbishops, but left it to the Pope to confirm them.
Much of the agreement was erased by later declarations (the Organic Acts) by Napoleon, declarations with Pius did not accept.
Travelled to Paris in 1804 to crown Napoleon emperor, but Napoleon took the crown from Pius's hands, crowning himself.
When Napoleon realized that Pius would not be his puppet, he invaded Italy, taking Rome in 1808 and the Papal States in 1809.
Pius was captured and imprisoned in Fontainebleau, France and Savona, Italy, and forced to sign on to another concordat, which he later disavowed.
Freed upon Napoleon's downfall, and returned to Rome on 24 May 1814; instituted the Feast of Mary, Help of Christians on 24 May in commemoration.
Extended the feast of Our Lady of Sorrows to the whole Church on 18 September 1814.
Restored the Jesuits so they could help in his renewed mission to revive the Church in war-torn Europe.
Patron of the arts.
Fell on 6 July 1823, fracturing his thigh; he died while recuperating from his injury.