A.D. 70, November 30. Patron saint of Scotland and Russia. Beyond what is told of Saint Andrew in the New Testament, legends relate that he travelled to Scythia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia, and was the first to preach the Gospel to the Muscovites in Salmatia. After many journeys and sufferings, he came to Achaia, where among his converts was the wife of the proconsul. This so enraged her husband that he commanded that Saint Andrew should be crucified on a cross of the form which has since borne his name. When he first beheld it he knelt, and adored it as already consecrated by the sufferings of his Lord. He was bound to the cross with cords, and thus did not die until after two days, during which he preached to his people to remain steadfast in the faith. Emblems – Transverse cross. X-shaped cross.
- E A Greene. “Saint Andrew the Apostle”. . Saints.SQPN.com. 20 August 2013. Web. 30 January 2015. <>