Catholic Encyclopedia – Saint Veronica Giuliani

Article

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt’ di Castello, 9 July 1727. Her parents, Francesco Giuliana and Benedetta Mancini, were both of gentle birth. In baptism she was named Ursula, and showed marvelous signs of sanctity. When but eighteen months old she uttered her first words to upbraid a shopman who was serving a false measure of oil, saying distinctly: “Do justice, God sees you.” At the age of three years she began to be favoured with Divine communications, and to show great compassion for the poor. She would set apart a portion of her food for them, and even part with her clothes when she met a poor child scantily clad. These traits and a great love for the Cross developed as she grew older. When others did not readily join in her religious practices she was inclined to be dictatorial. In her sixteenth year this imperfection of character was brought home to her in a vision in which she saw her own heart as a heart of steel. In her writings she confesses that she took a certain pleasure in the more stately circumstances which her family adopted when her father was appointed superintendent of finance at Piacenza. But this did not in any way affect her early-formed resolution to dedicate herself to religion, although her father urged her to marry and procured for her several suitors as soon as she became of marriageable age. Owing to her father’s opposition to her desire to enter a convent, Veronica fell ill and only recovered when he gave his consent.

In 1677 she was received into the convent of the Capuchin Poor Clares in Citt’ di Castello, taking the name of Veronica in memory of the Passion. At the conclusion of the ceremony of her reception the bishop said to the abbess: “I commend this new daughter to your special care, for she will one day be a great saint.” She became absolutely submissive to the will of her directors, though her novitiate was marked by extraordinary interior trials and temptations to return to the world. At her profession in 1678 she conceived a great desire to suffer in union with our Saviour crucified for the conversion of sinners. About this time she had a vision of Christ bearing His cross and henceforth suffered an acute physical pain in her heart. After her death the figure of the cross was found impressed upon her heart. In 1693 she entered upon a new phase in her spiritual life, when she had a vision of the chalice symbolizing the Divine Passion which was to be re-enacted in her own soul. At first she shrank from accepting it and only by great effort eventually submitted. She then began to endure intense spiritual suffering. In 1694 she received the impression of the Crown of Thorns, the wounds being visible and the pain permanent. By order of the bishop she submitted to medical treatment, but obtained no relief. Yet, although she lived in this supernaturally mystical life, she was a practical woman of affairs. For thirty-four years she was novice-mistress, and guided the novices with great prudence. It is noticeable that she would not allow them to read mystical books. In 1716 she was elected abbess and whilst holding that office enlarged the convent and had a good system of water-pipes laid down, the convent hitherto having been without a proper water supply. She was canonized by Gregory XVI in 1839. She is usually represented crowned with thorns and embracing the Cross.

MLA Citation

  • Lawrence Hess. “Saint Veronica Giuliani”. Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913. Saints.SQPN.com. 18 September 2014. Web. 19 September 2014. <>

Blessed Francisco Carlés González

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Franciscan Friar Minor, entering the novitiate on 19 March 1909 and making his solemn vows on 12 April 1913. Ordained in Cordoba, Spain on 2 June 1917. Served in the Holy Lands in the sanctuaries of the Holy Sepulchre, in Bethlehem and Hain Karem. Studied Arabic in Syria. Co-adjustor of Knaje, Syria. Co-adjutor in Aleppo, Syria. Superior of a Franciscan community of Er-Ram in Aleppo in 1928. Parish priest near Jerusalem in 1931. He returned to Spain in September 1934. Worked at the College of Chipiona in Cadiz, Spain in 1935. Martyred in the Spanish Civil War.

Born

Died

Venerated

Beatified

Canonized

  • if you have information relevant to this Cause, contact
       Fra Giovangiuseppe Califano, OFM
       Curia Provincial Franciscana
       C/ San Vicente, 91
       41002 Sevilla, SPAIN
Additional Information

MLA Citation

  • “Blessed Francisco Carlés González“. Saints.SQPN.com. 18 September 2014. Web. 19 September 2014. <>

Blessed Félix Echevarría Gorostiaga

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Born to a pious family; two of his brothers became Franciscan priests and missionaries. Franciscan Friar Minor, making his solumn vows on 7 September 1912. Priest, ordained on 16 July 1916. College rector, professor, organist and choirmaster at Librija, Spain in April 1919. Vicar ofthe college in Estepa, Spain in 1921. Director of Franciscan tertiaries. Held the chair of dogmatic theology from 1922 to 1926. Taught world literature and Spanish from 1926 to 1928. First superior and rector of the college of San Pantaleon de Aras in Santander, Spain from 16 November 1930 to 16 July 1932. Missionary to Morocco in 1933, but his health failed, and he was forced back to Spain after only a few months. Martyred in the Spanish Civil War.

Born

Died

Venerated

Beatified

Canonized

  • if you have information relevant to this Cause, contact
       Fra Giovangiuseppe Califano, OFM
       Curia Provincial Franciscana
       C/ San Vicente, 91
       41002 Sevilla, SPAIN
Additional Information

MLA Citation

  • “Blessed Félix Echevarría Gorostiaga“. Saints.SQPN.com. 18 September 2014. Web. 19 September 2014. <>

Blessed Francisco Vicente Edo

Also known as

  • Félix Adriano

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Member of the De La Salle Brothers. Martyred in the Spanish Civil War.

Born

Died

Venerated

Beatified

Canonized

  • if you have information relevant to this Cause, contact
       Frt. Rodolfo Cosimo Meoli, FSC
       Arquebisbat de Tarragona
       Pla de Palau, 2
       43003 Tarragona, SPAIN
Additional Information

MLA Citation

  • “Blessed Francisco Vicente Edo“. Saints.SQPN.com. 18 September 2014. Web. 19 September 2014. <>

Blessed Antonio Gil-Monforte

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Profile

Member of the De La Salle Brothers. Martyred in the Spanish Civil War.

Born

Died

Venerated

Beatified

Canonized

  • if you have information relevant to this Cause, contact
       Frt. Rodolfo Cosimo Meoli, FSC
       Arquebisbat de Tarragona
       Pla de Palau, 2
       43003 Tarragona, SPAIN
Additional Information

MLA Citation

  • “Blessed Antonio Gil-Monforte“. Saints.SQPN.com. 18 September 2014. Web. 19 September 2014. <>

Blessed Carlos Navarro Miquel

Also known as

  • Carlos of the Virgin of the Abandoned

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Member of the Piarists, entering the novitiate on 11 August 1929, and making his solemn vows on 18 December 1934. Priest, ordained on 4 August 1935. Teacher at Albacete, Spain. Martyred in the Spanish Civil War.

Born

Died

Venerated

Beatified

Canonized

  • if you have information relevant to this Cause, contact
       Rev. Mateusz Pindelski, SCHP
       Escola Pia de Catalunya
       Ronda Sant Pau 80, 2n
       08001 Barcelona, SPAIN
Additional Information

MLA Citation

  • “Blessed Carlos Navarro Miquel“. Saints.SQPN.com. 17 September 2014. Web. 19 September 2014. <>

Catholic Encyclopedia – Saint Maurice

Article

Leader (primicerius) of the Theban Legion, massacred at Agaunum, about 287 (286, 297, 302, 303), by order of Maximian Herculius. Feast, 22 Sept. The legend relates that the legion, composed entirely of Christians, had been called from Africa to suppress a revolt of the Bagandæ in Gaul. The soldiers were ordered to sacrifice to the gods in thanksgiving but refused. Every tenth was then killed. Another order to sacrifice and another refusal caused a second decimation and then a general massacre. (On the value of the legend, etc., see Agaunum and Theban Legion.) Saint Maurice is represented as a knight in full armour (sometimes as a Moor), bearing a standard and a palm; in Italian paintings with a red cross on his breast, which is the badge of the Sardinian Order of Saint Maurice. Many places in Switzerland, Piedmont, France, and Germany have chosen him as celestial patron, as have also the dyers, clothmakers, soldiers, swordsmiths, and others. He is invoked against gout, cramps, etc.

MLA Citation

  • Francis Mershman. “Saint Maurice”. Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913. Saints.SQPN.com. 17 September 2014. Web. 19 September 2014. <>

Catholic Encyclopedia – Saint Emmeram

Article

Bishop of Poitiers and missionary to Bavaria, born at Poitiers in the first half of the seventh century; martyred at Ascheim (Bavaria) towards the end of the same century. Of a noble family of Aquitaine, he received a good education and was ordained priest. According to some authors Emmeram occupied the See of Poitiers, but this cannot be verified, for his name does not appear among the bishops of Poitiers. He probably held the see for a short time, from the death of Dido (date unknown) to the episcopate of Ansoaldus (674). Having heard that the inhabitants of Bavaria were still idolaters, he determined to carry the light of the Faith to them. Ascending the Loire, crossing the Black Forest, and going down the Danube, he reached Ratisbon in a region then governed by the Duke Theodo. For three years he laboured in Bavaria, preaching and converting the people, acquiring also a renown for holiness. He then turned his steps towards Rome, to visit the tombs of Sts. Peter and Paul, but after a five days’ Journey, at a place now called Kleinhelfendorf, south of Munich, he was set upon by envoys of the Duke of Bavaria who tortured him cruelly. He died shortly afterwards at Ascheim, about fifteen miles distant. The cause of this attack and the circumstances attending his death are not known. According to the legend related by Aribo, Bishop of Freising, the first to write a life of Saint Emmeram, Ota, daughter of the Duke of Bavaria, who had been seduced by Sigipaldus, an important personage of her father’s court, fearing her father’s wrath, confessed her fault to the bishop. Moved with compassion, he advised her to name himself, whom every one respected, as her seducer, and it was in consequence of this accusation that Theodo ordered him to be followed and put to death. The improbability of the tale, the details of the saint’s martyrdom, which are certainly untrue, and the fantastic account of the prodigies attending his death show that the writer, infected by the pious mania of his time, simply added to the facts imaginary details supposed to redound to the glory of the martyr.

All that is known as to the date of the saint’s death is that it took place on 22 September, some time before Saint Rupert’s arrival in Bavaria (696). At Kleinhelfendorf, where he was tortured, there stands today a chapel of Saint Emmeram, and at Ascheim, where he died, is also a martyr’s chapel built in his honour. His remains were removed to Ratisbon and interred in the church of Saint George, from which they were transferred about the middle of the eighth century by Bishop Gawibaldus to a church dedicated to the saint. This church having been destroyed by fire in 1642, the saint’s body was found under the altar in 1645 and was encased in a magnificent reliquary. The relics, which were canonically recognized by Bishop Ignaz de Senestrez in 1833, are exposed for the veneration of the faithful every year on 22 September. It is impossible to prove that Emmeram occupied the See of Ratisbon, for the official episcopal list begins with the above-mentioned Gawibaldus, who was consecrated by Saint Boniface in 739 and died in 764.

MLA Citation

  • Léon Clugnet. “Saint Emmeram”. Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913. Saints.SQPN.com. 17 September 2014. Web. 19 September 2014. <>

Catholic Encyclopedia – Agaunum

[The Theban Legion]Article

(modern Saint Mauriceen-Valais)

Agaunum, in the diocese of Sion, Switzerland, owes its fame to an event related by Saint Eucherius, Bishop of Lyons, the martyrdom of a Roman legion, known as the “Theban Legion”, at the beginning of the fourth century. For centuries this martyrdom was accepted as an historical fact, but since the Reformation it has been the subject of long and violent controversies, an exact account of which may be found in the work of Franz Stolle. The sources for the martyrdom of the Thebans are few, consisting of two editions of their “Acts”, certain entries in the calendars and in the martyrologies, and the letter of Bishop Eucherius, written in the year 450. To these may be added certain “Passiones” of Theban martyrs, who escaped from the massacre of Agaunum, but who later fell victims to the persecution in Germany and Italy. It was only in the episcopate of Theodore of Octodurum (369-391), a long time after the occurrence, that attention seems to have been drawn to the massacre of a Roman legion at Agaunum. It was then that, according to Saint Eucherius, a basilica was built in honor of the martyrs, whose presence had been made known to Bishop Theodore by means of a revelation. The document of primary importance in connection with this history is the letter of Saint Eucherius to Bishop Salvius, wherein he records the successive witnesses through whom the tradition was handed down to his time over a period, that is, of about one hundred and fifty years. He had journeyed to the place of martyrdom; whither pilgrims came in great numbers, and had, he says, questioned those who were able to tell him the truth concerning the matter. He does not, however, appear to have seen a text of the martyrdom, though his account has many excellent qualities, historical as well as literary. Certain facts are related with exactitude, and the author has refrained from all miraculous additions. But on the other hand, the speeches which he attributes to the martyrs, and the allusion by which he strives to connect the massacre of the Theban Legion with the general persecution under Diocletian have given rise to much discussion. The speeches were probably of the Bishop’s Own composition; the historical groundwork on which he professes to base the martyrdom is wholly independent of the original narrative. The objections raised against the fact itself, and the attempts made to reduce the massacre of the legion to the mere death of six men, one of whom was a veteran, do not seem to merit attention. Barbarous as it may appear, there is nothing incredible in the massacre of a legion; instances might be cited in support of so unusual an occurrence, though it is quite possible that at Agaunum we have to do not with a legion, but with a simple vexillatio. The silence of contemporary historians, which has been appealed to as an unanswerable argument against the truth of the martyrdom of the Thebans, is far from having the weight that has been given it. Paul Allard has shown this very clearly by proving that there was no reason why Sulpicius Severus, Orosius, Prudentius, Eusebius, or Lactantius should have spoken of the Theban martyrs. He fixes the date of the martyrdom as prior to the year 292, not, as generally received, in 303. Dora Ruinart, Paul Allard, and the editors of the “Analecta Bollandiana” are of opinion that “the martyrdom of the legion, attested, as it is by ancient and reliable evidence, cannot be called in question by any honest mind.” This optimistic view, however, does not seem to have convinced all the critics.

The letter of Eucherius gives us no details as to the rule imposed on the priests entrusted by Theodore of Octodurum with the care of the basilica at Agaunum; nor do we know whether they were regulars or seculars, though a sermon of Saint Avitus, Bishop of Vienne, would appear to indicate the existence of a monastic foundation, which was replaced and renewed by the foundation of Sigismund, King of the Burgundians. Of the two documents which confirm this view, the “Vita Severini Acaunensis” is utterly unreliable, being a tissue of contradictions and falsehoods; the “Vita Sanctorum Abbatum Acaunensium”, a work of slight value, to be received with caution, though certain facts may be gathered from it. At the date of Sigismund’s first gifts to Agaunum the community was governed by Abbot Enemodus, who died 3 January, 516. His next successor but one, Ambrosius, brought Agaunum into notice by an innovation unknown in the West, the Perpetual Psalmody, in 522 or 523 at latest. This Perpetual Psalmody, or laus perennis, was carried on, day and night, by several choirs, or turmae, who succeeded each other in the recitation of the Divine Office, so that prayer went on without cessation. This laus perennis was practiced in the East by the Acoemetae, and its inauguration at Agaunum was the occasion of a solemn ceremony, and of a sermon by Saint Avitus which has come down to us. The “custom of Agaunum”, as it came to be called, spread over Gaul, to Lyons, Châlons, the Abbey of Saint Denis, to Luxeuil, Saint Germain at Paris, Saint Medard at Soissons, to Saint-Riquier, and was taken up by the monks of Remiremont and Laon, though the Abbey of Agaunum had ceased to practice it from the beginning of the ninth century. But Agaunum had gained a world-wide fame by its martyrs and its psalmody. The abbey had some of the richest and best preserved treasures in the West. Among the priceless and artistically exquisite pieces of goldsmith work, we need only mention the châsse (reliquary), decorated with glass mosaic, one of the most important in the West for the study of the beginnings of barbarian and Byzantine art. It ranks with the armour of Childeric, the Book of the Gospels at Monza in Italy, and the crowns of Guarrazar in Spain. It, is decorated not only with mosaics, but with tiles and precious stones, smooth or engraved. The front is ornamented with a medallion, long taken for a cameo, but which is a unique piece of work in spun glass. Its date has been much discussed. The back bears a long inscription, Which Unfortunately affords no solution of the problem, but we may agree with d’Arbois de Jubainville that it is not of earlier date than the year 563.

MLA Citation

  • Henri Leclercq. “Agaunum”. Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913. Saints.SQPN.com. 17 September 2014. Web. 19 September 2014. <>

Martyrs of Gaza

Memorial

Profile

Three brothers, Eusebius, Nestulus and Zeno, who were seized, dragged through the street, beaten and murdered by a pagan mob celebrating the renunciation of Christianity by Julian the Apostate. Martyrs.

Died

Canonized

Additional Information

MLA Citation

  • “Martyrs of Gaza“. Saints.SQPN.com. 16 September 2014. Web. 19 September 2014. <>